Lost Taxes and Other Costs of Marijuana Laws
by Jon Gettman

Notes

(1) Avila, Jim and The ABC News Law & Justice Unit. Marijuana McMansions. ABC News. June 14, 2007. http://www.abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/WNT/story?id=3242760&page=1

(2) Kantrowitz, Barbara and Anne Underwood. The Teen Drinking Dilemma. Newsweek. June 25, 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19263094/site/newsweek/page/0/

(3) Milbank, Dana. Sex and the Conservative. The Washington Post. Tuesday, July 17, 2007; A02

(4) Office of National Drug Control Policy (2004). The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992-2002. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/economic_costs/

(5) ONDCP (2004) pg III-1.

(6) Treatment Episodes Data Set, 2005. Substance and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA).

(7) Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2002.

(8) Rosenbloom, David H. and Robert S. Kravchuk. Public Administration, Sixth Edition. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. 2005. pg 353.

(9) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, Department of Health and Human Services. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. See Table H1. http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k1nhsda/vol1/toc.htm 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. See Table 1.31A http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k2nsduh/Overview/2k2Overview.htm#chap1

(10) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) "What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 1988 - 2000" December, 2001. NCJ 192334. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Pg 27. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/american_users_spend_2002.pdf The following footnote is provided in the ONDCP report to substantiate this conclusion:

"Researchers disagree about trends in reporting practices, but they agree that self-reported tobacco use is only about three-quarters as large as reports based on foreign imports and tobacco sales resulting in state and federal excise taxes. K.E. Warner, 'A Possible Increases in the Under reporting of Cigarette Consumption,' Journal of the American Statistical Association, 73 (1978):314-317. E.J. Hatziadreu, J.P. Pierce, M.C. Fiore, et. Al., 'The Reliability of Self-Reported Cigarette Consumption in the United States,' American Journal of Public Health, 79, (1989): 1020-1023."

(11) Harrison, Lana D. , Steven S. Martin, Tihomir Enev, and Deborah Harrington. "Comparing Drug-Testing and Self-Report of Drug Use among Youths and Young Adults in the General Population." Washington, D.C.: SAMSHA. May, 2007. http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/validity/drugTest.pdf Table 5.1, pg 61.

(12) Chen, Kevin, Denise Kandel and Mark Davies. "Relationships between frequency and quantity of marijuana use and last year proxy dependence amng adolescents and adults in the United States." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 46 (1997) 43-67. See Table 5, pg 62.

(13) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) "What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 1988 - 2000" December, 2001. NCJ 192334. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Pg 27. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/american_users_spend_2002.pdf. The following footnote is provided in the ONDCP report to substantiate this conclusion: "Using several self-report surveys, BOTEC Analysis Corporation estimated. . . . that an ounce could be divided into 60 joints"

(14) California Commission on Peace Office Standards and Training, (NCJRS Ref. #140188)

(15) Azorlosa, J., Greenwald, M., Stizer, M., "Marijuana Smoking: Effects of Varying Puff Volume and Breathhold Duration." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2782:560-569. 1995.

(16) Oviedo, A., Glowa, J., and Herkenham, M. (1993), "Chronic cannabanoid administration alters cannabinoid receptor binding in rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study." Brain Research, 616: 293-302. pg 293.

(17) Ibid pg. 300

(18) Bourque, Linda et al "Demographic and Health Characteristics of Heavy Marijuana Smokers in Los Angeles County" International Journal of Addictions 26(7), 739-755, 1991. pg 741-742.

(19) Stephens, Robert S., et al "Adult Marijuana Users Seeking Treatment." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1993, Vol 61, No 6, 1100-1104. pg 1101.

(20) Stephens, Robert S. et al "Treating Adult Marijuana Dependency: A Test of the Relapse Prevention Model." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1994 Vol 62 No 1, 92-90. pg 92.

(21) Ibid pg. 94.

(22) Established in 1993, the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) is a component of the U.S. Department of Justice and a member of the Intelligence Community. The General Counterdrug Intelligence Plan, signed by the President in February 2000, designated NDIC as the nation's principal center for strategic domestic counterdrug intelligence. http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/index.htm

(23) Marijuana Availability In The United States And Its Associated Territories -- A Report Prepared By The Federal Research Division, Library Of Congress Under An Interagency Agreement with The National Guard Bureau Counterdrug Office (Ngb-Cd). December 2003. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. 20540-4840. Pg 10.
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/MarAvail.pdf

(24) See Section 5 below for more information on The National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC)

(25) National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC). The NNICC Report of 1988: The Supply of Illicit Drug to the United States. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration. April 1989; National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC). The NNICC Report of 1993: The Supply of Illicit Drug to the United States. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration. August, 1994.

(26) Office of National Drug Control Policy (2004). The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003. Washington DC: Executive Office of the President (Publication Number NCJ 207768) http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/price_purity/

(27) Gettman, Jon B. "Marijuana Production in the United States." Bulletin of Cannabis Reform. No. 2. December, 2006. http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/bcr2/bcr2_index.html

(28) Marijuana Availability In The United States And Its Associated Territories -- A Report Prepared By The Federal Research Division, Library Of Congress Under An Interagency Agreement With The National Guard Bureau Counterdrug Office (Ngb-Cd). December 2003 Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. 20540-4840
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/MarAvail.pdf

(29) ibid pg 23.

(30) ibid pg 24

(31) National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC). The NNICC Report of 1989: The Supply of Illicit Drug to the United States. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration. June 1990 pg 1.

(32) National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC). The NNICC Report of 1988: The Supply of Illicit Drug to the United States. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration. April 1989.

(33) ibid

(34) ibid

(35) National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC). The NNICC Report of 1990: The Supply of Illicit Drug to the United States. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration. June, 1991.

(36) NNICC (1989)

(37) Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Marijuana Availability In The United States And Its Associated Territories -- A Report Prepared By The Federal Research Division, Library Of Congress Under An Interagency Agreement With The National Guard Bureau Counterdrug Office (Ngb-Cd). December 2003 Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. 20540?4840
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/MarAvail.pdf

(38) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) "Drug Availability Estimates in theUnited States," NCJ 197107. ONDCP, December 2002. Chapter 4. Marijuana Availability in the United States. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/drugfact/drug_avail/

(39) Federal Research Division (2003), pgs 22-23.

(40) ONDCP, 2002. pg 103.

(41) Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Department of State. "2002 International Narcotic Control Strategy Report." Washington, DC: Department of State. March 1, 2003. Pg II-7. http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2002/

(42) Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Department of State. "2003 International Narcotic Control Strategy Report." Washington, DC: Department of State. March 1, 2004. See "Policy and Program Developments." http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2003/

(43) Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Department of State. "2005 International Narcotic Control Strategy Report." Washington, DC: Department of State. See "Policy and Program Developments." http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2005/

(44) Gettman, Jon B. "Marijuana Production in the United States." Bulletin of Cannabis Reform. No. 2. December, 2006. http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/bcr2/bcr2_index.html

(45) International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 2006, U.S. State Department, March 2006. http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2006/

(46) International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 2007, U.S. State Department, March 2007. http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2007/

(47) Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2007, National Drug Intelligence Center, February 2007. http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs21/22486/index.htm

(48) Drug Enforcement Administration.1982 Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program Report. December, 1982. http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/DCESP/dcesp1982.html

(49) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). Marijuana Situation Assessment. September, 1994. pg. 45.

(50) Federal Research Division, Library of Congress (2003). Pg 23.

(51) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) "What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 1988 - 2000" December, 2001. NCJ 192334. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Pg 27. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/american_users_spend_2002.pdf

(52) Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) "Drug Availability Estimates in the United States," NCJ 197107. ONDCP, December 2002. Chapter 4. Marijuana Availability in the United States. Pg. 140 http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/drugfact/drug_avail/

(53) Ibid. pg 140-141. This claim is supported by the following footnote: "The Full Market Model incorporates the following drug use-related data sets and corresponding demand indicators: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, Monitoring the Future study, Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program, Drug Abuse Warning Network, Treatment Episode Data Set."

(54) See notes (7) and (8) above

(55) Marijuana users discard the seeds, stems, and occasional branches that are included in purchased marijuana. A 1992 report from the Drug Enforcement Administration indicates that in seeded marijuana, seeds account for 23% of the dried plant while stems and branches account for 43% of the plant. While many of the branches are discarded prior to sale, these figures indicate that seeds are a significant part of the purchased commodity. Source: Drug Enforcement Administration. "1992 Domestic Cannabis Eradiation/Suppression Program" December, 1992. pg 10. http://www.drugscience.org/Archive/DCESP/DEA1992.pdf

(56) Office of Management and Budget, The Budget for Fiscal year 2008, Historical Tables, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2007) Table 2.3, Year 2006, pg 34-35.

(57) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts 2004, NCJ 215648. U.S. Bureau of the Census' Criminal Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts Program (CJEE); filename: cjee0401.csv.

 
 
  
 
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