The 1995 Marijuana Rescheduling Petition

Notes: Scientific Evidence of Marijuana's Pharmacological Effect, If Known


Notes on sections (a) through (e)

1 54 Fed. Reg. 53,784 (1989)

2 54 Fed. Reg. 53,781 (1989)

3 57 Fed. Reg. 10,499 (1992)

4 54 Fed. Reg. 53,781 (1989)

5 Tashkin, D.P., Coulson, V. et al. "Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers of Marijuana Alone, Smokers of Marijuana and Tobacco, Smokers of Tobacco Alone, and Nonsmokers." Am Rev Respir Dis 1987 135:209-216. pg. 209.

6 ibid. pg. 211.

7 ibid. pg. 215.

8 Wu, T.C., Tashkin, D.P. et al. Pulmonary Hazards of Smoking Marijuana as Compared with Tobacco. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:347-351; 1988. pg. 349.

9 ibid. pg. 349.

10 Tashkin, D.P. "Pulmonary Complications of Smoked Substance Abuse." Western Journal of Medicine 1990 May; 152:525-530. pg. 525-526.

11 ibid. pg. 527.

12 Barbers, R.G., Evans, M.J., Gong, H., and Tashkin, D.P. Enhanced Alveolar Monocytic Phagocyte (Macrophage) Proliferation in Tobacco and Marijuana Smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 143:1092-1095. pg. 1092.

13 ibid. pg. 1093.

14 ibid. pg. 1095.

15 Sherman, M.P., Campbell, L.A., Gong, H., Roth, M.D., and Tashkin, D.P. "Antimicrobial and Respiratory Burst Characteristics of Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages Recovered from Smokers of Marijuana Alone, Smokers of Tobacco Alone, Smokers of Marijuana and Tobacco, and Nonsmokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:1351-1356. pg. 1356.

16 Kemmerich, B., Rossing TH, Pennington, JE., Comparative oxidative microbicidal activity of human blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages and activation by recombinant gamma interferon. Am Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987 136:266-70, cited in Sherman et al (1991).

17 Sherman et al (1991) pg. 1356.

18 Tashkin, D.P., Gliederer, F., et al. Effects of Varying Marijuana Smoking Profile on Deposition of Tar and Absorption of CO and Delta-9-THC. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 40, pp. 651-656. pg. 656. 1991.

19 ibid.

20 ibid. pg. 655.

21 Tashkin, D.P., Gliederer, F., et al. Tar, CO, and D9-THC Delivery From the 1st and 2nd Halves of a Marijuana Cigarette. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 40, pp. 657-661. pg. 661. 1991.

22 Sherman, M.P., Roth, M.D., et al. Marijuana Smoking, Pulmonary Function, and Lung Macrophage Oxidant Release. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 40, pp. 663-669. pg. 668. 1991.

23 Huber, G., First, M., Grubner, O. Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke Gas-Phase Cytotoxins. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 40, pp. 629-636. 1991.

24 ibid. pg. 634.

25 ibid. pg. 634.

26 Wu, H., Wright, R., Catherine, S., & Tashkin, D. "Effects of Smoked Marijuana of Varying Potency on Ventilatory Drive and Metabolic Rate" Am Rev Respir Dis 1992 146:716-721. pg. 716.

27 ibid. pg. 718.

28 ibid. pg. 719.

29 Tashkin, D., Simmons, M., Chang, P., Liu, H., Coulson, A. Effect of Smoked Substance Abuse on Nonspecific Airway Hyperresponsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993, 147: 97-103. pg. 102.

30 Tashkin, D. Is Frequent Marijuana Smoking Harmful to Health? Western Journal of Medicine. 158:635-637. pg. 635.

31 ibid. pg. 636.

32 Polen, M., Sidney, S. et al Health Care Use by Frequent Marijuana Smokers Who Do Not Smoke Tobacco. 32 Tashkin, D. Is Frequent Marijuana Smoking Harmful to Health? Western Journal of Medicine. 158:596-601.

33 Mathre, M.L. A Survey on Disclosure of Marijuana Use to Health Care Professionals. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Vol. 20(1), Jan-Mar 1988. pg. 117-120.

34 Perez-Reyes, M., White, W.R., et al. The Pharmacologic Effects of Daily Marijuana Smoking in Humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 40, pp. 691 - 694. pg. 694. 1991.

35 ibid. pg. 692.

36 ibid.

37 ibid. pg. 694.

38 Agurell, S., Hallden, M., et al. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of D1-Tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids with emphasis on man. Pharmacological Reviews. Vol. 38, No 1. pp. 21 - 43. 1986.

39 Hollister, L. "Peregrinations Among Drugs of Dependence: Nathan B. Eddy Memorial Award Lecture." In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1989. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Scientific Meeting, The Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Harris, L. (ed.), National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 95. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990. pg. 36-43. pg. 42.

40 ibid. pg. 42.

41 Agurell et al (1986) pg. 22.

42 ibid. pg. 31.

43 ibid. pg. 40.

44 ibid. pg. 40.

45 Azorlosa, J., Heishman, S., et al Marijuana Smoking: Effect of Varying D9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Content and Number of Puffs. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 261:114-122. 1992. pg. 115.

46 ibid. pg. 120.

47 ibid. pg. 120.

48 ibid. pg. 121.

49 ibid. pg. 121.

50 Azorlosa, J., Greenwald, M, Stitzer, M. Marijuana Smoking: Effects of Varying Puff Volume and Breathhold Duration. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 272:560-569. 1995.

51 ibid. pg. 567.

52 Huestis, M., Sampson, A., et al. Characterization of the absorption phase of marijuana smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992, 52:31-41.

53 ibid. pg. 32.

54 ibid. pg. 35.

55 ibid. pg. 35.

56 ibid. pg. 37.

57 ibid. pg. 38 - 39.

58 ibid. pg. 41.

59 Mechoulam, R. Chemistry of cannabis. Handbook Exp. Pharmacol. 55:119-134, 1981.

60 Mechoulam, R. "Marijuana chemistry" Science 168 (3936):1159-66. 1973.

61 Razdan, R. Structure-Activity Relationships in Cannabinoids. Pharmacological Reviews. Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 75 - 149. p. 75-76.

62 ibid. pg. 146.

63 Dewey, W. Cannabinoid Pharmacology. Pharmacological Reviews. Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 151 - 178. pg. 172.

64 See for example, Harvey, D.J., Paton, W.D.M., Marihuana '84, Final Summary. In Harvey, D.J., Paton, W.D.M., Nahas, G. (eds.), Marihuana '84: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. Washington, D.C.: IRL Press, 1985. (Satellite Symposium on Cannabis, 3rd, 1984, Oxford, England; International Congress of Pharmacology, 9th, 1984, London, England.) pg. 734.

65 Martin, B. Cellular Effects of Cannabinoids. Pharmacological Reviews. Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 45-74. pg. 69.

66 Razdan, 1986 supra pg. 75.

67 Martin, B., Bloom, A., Howlett, A., Welch, S. Cannabinoid Action in the Central Nervous System. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1988. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Scientific Meeting, The Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Harris, L. (ed.), National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 90. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1988. pg.. 275-283. pg. 279.

 

 
 
 
  
 
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