The 1995 Marijuana Rescheduling Petition

Notes: Marijuana's History and Current Pattern of Use


Notes from Sections (a) through (k)

1 Hollister, L.E.(1986), "Health Aspects of Cannabis", Pharmacological Reviews, 38:1, 1-20. pg. 17.

2 Gould, S.J. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton & Co. 1981.

3 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1994) Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance Abuse and Addiction, OTA-EHR-597 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1994). pg. 9-10.

4 ibid. pg. 14.

5 ibid. pg. 14.

6 Bonnie, R., Whitebread, C. The Marihuana Conviction; a history of marihuana prohibition in the United States. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia. 1974

7 Manatt, M. Parents, peers, and pot II: parents in action. Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse; Washington, D.C. 1983.

8 Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G. Drug Use Among American High School Seniors, College Students and Young Adults, 1975-1990. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1991. pg. 118.

9 ibid. pg. 120

10 ibid. pg. 122.

11 ibid. pg. 123

12 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Advance Report Number 8. Preliminary Estimates From the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Rockville, MD: SAMSHA. December, 1994.

13 Shalala, D. "Remarks by Donna Shalala, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Drug Abuse Surveys Press Conference" (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Sec., HHS, December 12, 1994).

14 Hollister, L. (1986) pg. 6.

15 See U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics matters. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. (Washington D.C.: Bureau of International Narcotic Matters.) April, 1994; April 1993.

16 President's Commission on Organized Crime. America's Habit: Drug Abuse, Drug Trafficking, and Organized Crime. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office) 1986.

17 Kuhn, T. "The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science" In The Essential Tension, Chicago: University of Chicago. 1977. pp. 178-224.

18 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Estimates from the 1993 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, Advance Report #7 (Rockville, MD: July 1994).

19 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, Smoking, Drinking, and Illicit Drug Use Among American Secondary School Students, College Students, and Young Adults, 1975-1991, Pub. No. (NIH) 93-3480, (Rockville, MD: 1992).

20 See also U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health, A Synopsis of the Key Points In the 1994 Monitoring the Future Results, (Rockville, MD: December 1994) and "Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1994: National High School Senior Drug Abuse Survey," (Rockville, MD: Nov. 1994).

21 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance Abuse and Addiction, OTA-EHR-597 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, September 1994). pp. 37-38.

22 Shalala, D. "Remarks by Donna Shalala, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Drug Abuse Surveys Press Conference" (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Sec., HHS, December 12, 1994).

23 See note 12, HHS, 1994.

24 Ibid. Subtract 'use of any illicit drug other than marijuana' from 'use of any illicit drug' to produce indicators for 'marijuana use alone' and 'marijuana use w/other illicit drugs.'

25 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Drugs, Crime, and the Justice System, (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, December 1992). pp. 3-8.

26 For summary of several papers on drugs and violence, see Goldstein, P. "The Relationship Between Drugs and Violence" Paper presented at the United States Sentencing Commission Inaugural Symposium on Crime and Punishment in the United States, "Drugs & Violence in America," June 16-18, 1993. Also, Brownstein & Goldstein. "Research and the Development of Public Policy: The Case of Drugs and Violent Crime" Journal of Applied Sociology, Vol. 7, 1990, pg. 77-92.

27 See Herkenham and Lynn (1990)

28 Johnston, 1991. pg. 123.

29 Mikuriya, T., Aldrich, M. Cannabis 1988, Old Drug, New Dangers. The Potency Question. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Vol. 20(1):47-55.

30 ibid. pg. 47.

31 ibid. pg. 53.

32 Morgan, J. "American Marijuana Potency: Data Versus Conventional Wisdom" NORML Reports. (National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws: Washington, D.C.) 1993. Pre-publication extract of data from work in progress.

33 ElSohly, M.A. and Ross, S.A., "Quarterly Report, Potency Monitoring Project, Report #50" Washington, D.C.: NIDA, 1994. pg. 9.

34 Nahas, G., Marihuana-Deceptive Weed. New York: Raven Press, 1973. pg. 78.

35 Langer, J. Drugs of Abuse. Drug Enforcement Magazine. Spring, 1975. Vol. 2, No. 2. pg. 8-33. pg. 27.

36 e.g. Almadori, G; Paludetti, G; et al "Marijuana smoking as a possible cause of tongue carcinoma in young patients." J Laryngol Otol 1990 Nov.; 104(11):896-9. The article concerns a one patient, a 23 year old male regular marijuana smoker, and concerns marijuana as a possible new risk factor.

37 PRIDE, Inc. "Marijuana and Cocaine" (PRIDE: Atlanta, GA) 1990. "Marijuana . . . may lead to early development of head, neck and lung cancers."

38 Robison, LL; Buckley, JD; et al "Maternal drug use and risk of childhood nonlymphoblastic leukemia among offspring. An epidemiological investigation implicating marijuana (a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group)." Cancer 1989 May 15;63(10):1904-11.

39 See PRIDE above. "Marijuana use during pregnancy may be linked to one form of leukemia in children."

40 Christie, M., Chesher, G. (1994) "The human toxicity of marijuana: a critique of a review by Nahas and Latour" Drug and Alcohol Review (1994) 13: 209-216.

41 Herkenham, M., Lynn, A. et al. (1990).

42 U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Cannabis Investigation Section. 1991 Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Program. (DEA: Washington, D.C.) December 1991.

 

 
 
 
  
 
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