The 1995 Marijuana Rescheduling Petition

Notes: What, If any, Risk there is from Marijuana to the Public Health


Notes on sections (a) - (h)

1 U.S. Code Cong. & Admin. News (1970) pg. 4603.

2 U.S. Cong. and Admin. News 1970 pg. 4602.

3 Shalala, D. "Remarks by Donna Shalala, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Drug Abuse Surveys Press Conference" (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Sec., HHS, December 12, 1994).

4 Bachman, J.G., Johnston, L.D. et al. Explaining the Recent Decline in Marijuana Use: Differentiating the Effects of Perceived Risks, Disapproval, and General Lifestyle Factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1988. 29:92-112.

5 ibid. pg. 108.

6 Bachman, J.G., Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M. Explaining the Recent Decline in Cocaine Use: Further Evidence That Perceived Risks and Disapproval Lead to Reduced Drug Use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1990. 31:173-184.

7 Nahas (1990) supra. pg. xxiii-xxiv.

8 Gould, S.J. (1981) The Mismeasure of Man, (New York: Norton & Co., 1981.)

9 Blalock, H.M. (1979) Social Statistics. New York: McGraw Hill, 1979.

10 See section 4 above, or see U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (1994) "Advanced Report number 7, Preliminary Estimates From the 1993 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse." Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, July 1994. See Table 4A, pg. 48. To calculate, subtract "any illicit drug other than marijuana" from "any illicit drug" to produce estimate of marijuana users who do not use other illegal drugs. For percentage, divide this number by the number of marijuana users.

11 Yamaguchi, K., Kandel, D. (1984a) "Patterns of Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: II. Sequences of Progression." American Journal of Public Health 74:7, July, 1984. pg. 671.

12 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (19940 Technologies for Understanding and Preventing Substance Abuse and Addiction, OTA-EHR-597 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1994). pg. 74.

13 ibid. pg. 74.

14 ibid. pg. 78.

15 ibid. pg. 80.

16 Yamaguchi and Kandel (1984a) pg. 671.

17 Yamaguchi, K., Kandel, D. (1984b) "Patterns of Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: III. Predictors of Progression." American Journal of Public Health 74:7, July, 1984. pg. 679.

18 Kandel, D.B., Logan, J.A. Patterns of Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: I. Periods of Risk for Initiation, Continued Use, and Discontinuation. American Journal of Public Health. 74:660-666. pg. 664.

19 Yamaguchi, K., Kandel, D. (1984b)

20 Yamaguchi And Kandel (1984b) pg. 679-680.

21 ibid. pg. 677.

22 Kandel, D.B., Yamaguchi, K., Chen, K. (1992) "Stages of Progression in Drug Involvement from Adolescence to Adulthood: Further Evidence for the Gateway Theory." J. Stud. Alcohol 53: 447-457, 1992.

23 ibid. pg. 451.

24 Donovan, J.E. and Jessor, R. "Problem drinking and the dimension of involvement with drugs: A Guttman Scalogram Analysis of Adolescent Drug Use." Amer. J. Pub. Hlth. 73: 543-552, 1983. cited in Kandel, et al (1992).

25 Kandel, D. et al (1992) pg. 452-3.

26 ibid., pg. 453-4.

27 ibid., pg. 454.

28 Kandel, D.B., Yamaguchi, K. From Beer to Crack: Developmental Patterns of Drug Involvement. American Journal of Public Health, 1993. 83:851-855. pg. 854.

29 Chen, K., Kandel, D. The Natural History of Drug Use from Adolescence to the Mid-Thirties in a General Population Sample. American Journal of Public Health, 1995; 85:41-47.

30 ibid. pg. 41.

31 O'Malley, P, Bachman, J., Johnston, L. Period, Age and Cohort Effects on Substance Use Among American Youth, 1976-82. American Journal of Public Health, 1984;74:682-688.

32 ibid. pg. 687-688.

33 Nahas & Frick (1981) pg. 368.

34 Bourque, L.B., Tashkin, D.P., et al. Demographic and Health Characteristics of Heavy Marijuana Smokers in Los Angeles County. International Journal of the Addictions, 26(6)), 739-755, 1991. pg. 739.

35 Becker, H.S., "Becoming a Marihuana User," 59:235-242, 1953. pg. 235.

36 ibid. pg. 239.

37 ibid. pg. 242.

38 Hansen, W., Drug abuse in Schools: Contributing Factors and Preventive Interventions. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service. (PB#94-175635) 1994.

39 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1994) pg. 147.

40 Hansen, W. (1994) pg. 7-8.

41 ibid. pg. 16.

42 ibid. pg. 16-17.

43 Hansen, W. Personal Communication, 6/30/95.

44 ibid.

45 Hansen, W. (1994), pg. 147 - 148.

46 ibid. pg. 53.

47 ibid. pg. 53.

48 ibid. pg. 55.

49 ibid. pg. 59.

50 Hansen, W. Personal Communication 6/30/95.

51 ibid.

52 ibid.

53 Hansen, W. (1994) pg. 89-90.

54 ibid. pg. 90.

55 Hollister, L. Psychopharmacology: The bridge between psychiatry and biology. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1988; 44(2)):123-7.

56 ibid. pg. 124.

57 Robins, L. The Natural History of Substance Use as a Guide to Setting Drug Policy. American Journal of Public Health, 195;85(1)):12-13.

58 ibid. pg. 13.

 

 
 
 
  
 
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